The caudate lobe of the liver

Implications of embryology and anatomy for surgery
      Study of the posterior sector of the liver began in the 1300s with Sylvius' and later Spieghel's [

      Van den Spieghel A. De humani corporis fabrica. Venice: 1627.

      ] description of the lobus exiguus, termed the Spieghel lobe by Glisson in 1654 [

      Glisson F. Anatomy of the liver. London: O. Pullein; 1654.

      ]. (The author's name is Adrien van den Spieghel. In Dutch, Sphieghel means “mirror”; the German spelling, Spiegel, persists in the literature.) Subsequent analysis of anatomy, comparative anatomy, and embryology of the liver led to recognition of the modern hepatic or Couinaud segments, with the Spieghel lobe designated as an independent hepatic segment, termed the dorsal sector, caudate lobe, or Couinaud segment I (C. Couinaud, unpublished data, 1989) [
      • Couinaud C.
      Plea for exact hepatic segmentation and an anatomic technic of regular resection of the liver: partial clamping of the hepatic stump.
      ]. The lobe was described as containing two (left and right) (C. Couinaud, unpublished data, 1989) [
      • Healey J.E.
      • Schroy P.C.
      Anatomy of the biliary ducts within the human liver.
      ] or three subsegments (the left or Spieghel lobe, the medial paracaval portion, and the right portion or caudate process) [
      • Kumon M.
      Anatomy of the caudate lobe with special reference to portal vein and bile duct.
      ]. Couinaud and other investigators [
      • Couinaud C.
      Surgical approach to the dorsal section of the liver.
      ,
      • Gadzijev E.M.
      • Ravnik D.
      • Stanisavljevic D.
      • Trotovsek B.
      Venous drainage of the dorsal sector of the liver: differences between segments I and IX: a study on corrosion casts of the human liver.
      ,
      • Couinaud C.
      Dorsal sector of the liver.
      ,
      • Filipponi F.
      • Romagnoli P.
      • Mosca F.
      • Couinaud C.
      The dorsal sector of human liver: embryological, anatomical and clinical relevance.
      ,
      • Mehran R.
      • Schneider R.
      • Franchebois P.
      The minor hepatic veins: anatomy and classification.
      ] have reported that the right caudate represents separate segment IX. Confusion regarding terminology arises from the proximity of the caudate lobe to the portal confluence, proximal hepatic arteries, and the main hepatic vein–vena cava confluence.
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