Advertisement

Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Surgical Oncology Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ferlay J.
        • Parkin D.M.
        • Steliarova-Foucher E.
        Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2008.
        Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46: 765-781
        • Siegel R.L.
        • Miller K.D.
        • Fuchs H.E.
        • et al.
        Cancer Statistics, 2021.
        CA: a Cancer J clinicians. 2021; 71: 7-33
        • Kirzin S.
        • Marisa L.
        • Guimbaud R.
        • et al.
        Sporadic early-onset colorectal cancer is a specific Sub-Type of cancer: a Morphological, molecular and genetics study.
        PLoS ONE. 2014; 9: e103159
        • Siegel R.L.
        • Jemal A.
        • Ward E.M.
        Increase in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer Among Young Men and Women in the United States.
        Cancer Epidemiol Prev Biomarkers. 2009; 18: 1695-1698
        • Stoffel E.M.
        • Murphy C.C.
        Epidemiology and Mechanisms of the Increasing Incidence of Colon and Rectal Cancers in Young Adults.
        Gastroenterology. 2020; 158: 341
        • Wolf A.M.D.
        • Fontham E.T.H.
        • Church T.R.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer screening for average-risk adults: 2018 guideline update from the American Cancer Society.
        CA: A Cancer J Clinicians. 2018; 68: 250-281
        • Collaborative R.
        • Zaborowski A.M.
        • Abdile A.
        • et al.
        Characteristics of Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Colorectal Cancer: A Review.
        JAMA Surg. 2021; 156: 865-874
        • Jandova J.
        • Xu W.
        • Nfonsam V.
        Sporadic early-onset colon cancer expresses unique molecular features.
        J Surg Res. 2016; 204: 251-260
      1. Colorectal Cancer — Cancer Stat Facts.
        (Available at:) (Accessed August 15, 2021)
        • Siegel R.L.
        • Miller K.D.
        • Jemal A.
        Cancer statistics, 2018.
        CA: A Cancer J Clinicians. 2018; 68: 7-30
        • Bailey C.E.
        • Hu C.-Y.
        • You Y.N.
        • et al.
        Increasing Disparities in Age-Related Incidence of Colon and Rectal Cancer in the United States, 1975-2010.
        JAMA Surg. 2015; 150: 17
        • Siegel R.L.
        • Torre L.A.
        • Soerjomataram I.
        • et al.
        Global patterns and trends in colorectal cancer incidence in young adults.
        Gut. 2019; 68: 2179-2185
        • You Y.N.
        • Xing Y.
        • Feig B.W.
        • et al.
        Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer: Is It Time to Pay Attention?.
        Arch Intern Med. 2012; 172: 287-289
        • Acuna-Villaorduna A.R.
        • Lin J.
        • Kim M.
        • et al.
        Racial/ethnic disparities in early-onset colorectal cancer: implications for a racial/ethnic-specific screening strategy.
        Cancer Med. 2021; 10: 2080
        • Hanna K.
        • Zeeshan M.
        • Hamidi M.
        • et al.
        Colon cancer in the young: contributing factors and short-term surgical outcomes.
        Int J Colorectal Dis. 2019; 34: 1879-1885
        • Ewongwo A.
        • Hamidi M.
        • Alattar Z.
        • et al.
        Contributing factors and short-term surgical outcomes of patients with early-onset rectal cancer.
        Am J Surg. 2020; 219: 578-582
        • Wang W.
        • Chen W.
        • Lin J.
        • et al.
        Incidence and characteristics of young-onset colorectal cancer in the United States: An analysis of SEER data collected from 1988 to 2013.
        Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2019; 43: 208-215
        • Rahman R.
        • Schmaltz C.
        • Jackson C.S.
        • et al.
        Increased risk for colorectal cancer under age 50 in racial and ethnic minorities living in the United States.
        Cancer Med. 2015; 4: 1863
        • Abualkhair W.H.
        • Zhou M.
        • Ochoa C.O.
        • et al.
        Geographic and intra-racial disparities in early-onset colorectal cancer in the SEER 18 registries of the United States.
        Cancer Med. 2020; 9: 9150
        • Rogers C.R.
        • Moore J.X.
        • Qeadan F.
        • et al.
        Examining factors underlying geographic disparities in early-onset colorectal cancer survival among men in the United States.
        Am J Cancer Res. 2020; 10 (Available at: /pmc/articles/PMC7269786/. Accessed September 29, 2021): 1592
        • Marchand L Le
        • Wilkens L.R.
        • Kolonel L.N.
        • et al.
        Associations of Sedentary Lifestyle, Obesity, Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Diabetes with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.
        Cancer Res. 1997; 57
        • Tsoi K.K.F.
        • CYY Pau
        • Wu W.K.K.
        • et al.
        Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009; 7: 682-688.e5
        • Giovannucci E.
        • Ascherio A.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • et al.
        Physical activity, obesity, and risk for colon cancer and adenoma in men.
        Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122: 327-334
        • Boardman L.A.
        • Johnson R.A.
        • Petersen G.M.
        • et al.
        Higher Frequency of Diploidy in Young-Onset Microsatellite-Stable Colorectal Cancer.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13: 2323-2328
        • Davis D.M.
        • Marcet J.E.
        • Frattini J.C.
        • et al.
        Is it time to lower the recommended screening age for colorectal cancer?.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2011; 213: 352-361
        • Chang D.T.
        • Pai R.K.
        • Rybicki L.A.
        • et al.
        Clinicopathologic and molecular features of sporadic early-onset colorectal adenocarcinoma: An adenocarcinoma with frequent signet ring cell differentiation, rectal and sigmoid involvement, and adverse morphologic features.
        Mod Pathol. 2012; 25: 1128-1139
        • Myers E.A.
        • Feingold D.L.
        • Forde K.A.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions’ experience.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19: 5651-5657
        • Jasperson K.W.
        • Vu T.M.
        • Schwab A.L.
        • et al.
        Evaluating Lynch syndrome in very early onset colorectal cancer probands without apparent polyposis.
        Fam Cancer. 2010; 9: 99
        • Giráldez M.D.
        • Balaguer F.
        • Bujanda L.
        • et al.
        MSH6 and MUTYH Deficiency Is a Frequent Event in Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.
        Clin Cancer Res : official J Am Assoc Cancer Res. 2010; 16: 5402
        • Riegert-Johnson D.L.
        • Johnson R.A.
        • Rabe K.G.
        • et al.
        The Value of MUTYH Testing in Patients with Early Onset Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer Referred for Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer Syndrome Testing.
        Genet Test. 2008; 11 (Available at:): 361-365
        • Antelo M.
        • Balaguer F.
        • Shia J.
        • et al.
        A High Degree of LINE-1 Hypomethylation Is a Unique Feature of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.
        PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: 45357
        • Yokota T.
        Are KRAS/BRAF Mutations Potent Prognostic and/or Predictive Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancers?.
        Anti-Cancer Agents Med Chem. 2012; 12: 163
        • Baviskar T.
        • Momin M.
        • Liu J.
        • et al.
        Target Genetic Abnormalities for the Treatment of Colon Cancer and Its Progression to Metastasis.
        Curr Drug Targets. 2020; 22: 722-733
        • Perea J.
        • Rueda D.
        • Canal A.
        • et al.
        Age at Onset Should Be a Major Criterion for Subclassification of Colorectal Cancer.
        J Mol Diagn. 2014; 16: 116-126
        • Berg M.
        • Danielsen S.A.
        • Ahlquist T.
        • et al.
        DNA Sequence Profiles of the Colorectal Cancer Critical Gene Set KRAS-BRAF-PIK3CA-PTEN-TP53 Related to Age at Disease Onset.
        PLoS ONE. 2010; 5: e13978
        • Uy G.B.
        • Kaw L.L.
        • Punzalan C.K.
        • et al.
        Clinical and molecular biologic characteristics of early-onset versus late-onset colorectal carcinoma in Filipinos.
        World J Surg. 2004; 28: 117-123
        • Ford C.E.
        • Jary E.
        • Ma S.S.Q.
        • et al.
        The Wnt Gatekeeper SFRP4 Modulates EMT, Cell Migration and Downstream Wnt Signalling in Serous Ovarian Cancer Cells.
        PLoS ONE. 2013; 8: e54362
        • Nfonsam L.E.
        • Jandova J.
        • Jecius H.C.
        • et al.
        SFRP4 expression correlates with epithelial mesenchymal transitionlinked genes and poor overall survival in colon cancer patients.
        World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2019; 11: 589-598
      2. Nfonsam VN, Jecius H C, Janda J, et al. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) promotes cell proliferation in early-onset colon cancer tumorigenesis. 1:3. doi:10.1007/s00464-019-07185-z

        • Wusterbarth E.
        • Chen Y.
        • Jecius H.
        • et al.
        Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein, COMP may be a better prognostic marker than CEACAM5 and correlates with colon cancer molecular subtypes, tumor aggressiveness and overall survival.
        J Surg Res. 2021; 270: 169-177
        • Nfonsam V.N.
        • Nfonsam L.E.
        • Chen D.
        • et al.
        COMP gene coexpresses with EMT genes and is associated with poor survival in colon cancer patients.
        J Surg Res. 2019; 233: 297-303
        • Papadakos K.S.
        • Darlix A.
        • Jacot W.
        • et al.
        High Levels of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Can Serve as an Independent Prognostic Marker.
        Front Oncol. 2019; 9: 1141
        • Babaei K.
        • Khaksar R.
        • Zeinali T.
        • et al.
        Epigenetic profiling of MUTYH, KLF6, WNT1 and KLF4 genes in carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer.
        BioMedicine. 2019; 9: 1-9
        • Strum W.B.
        • Boland C.R.
        Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer in Persons under 50 Years of Age: A Review.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2019; 64: 3059-3065
        • Álvaro E.
        • Cano J.M.
        • García J.L.
        • et al.
        Clinical and Molecular Comparative Study of Colorectal Cancer Based on Age-of-Onset and Tumor Location: Two Main Criteria for Subclassifying Colorectal Cancer.
        Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20https://doi.org/10.3390/IJMS20040968
        • Miyakura Y.
        • Sugano K.
        • Akasu T.
        • et al.
        Extensive but hemiallelic methylation of the hMLH1 promoter region in early-onset sporadic colon cancers with microsatellite instability.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2: 147-156
        • Najat M.
        • Guy Z.
        • Bruno B.
        • et al.
        High frequency of chromosome 14 deletion in early-onset colon cancer.
        Dis colon rectum. 2007; 50: 1881-1886
        • Willauer A.N.
        • Liu Y.
        • Pereira A.A.L.
        • et al.
        Clinical and molecular characterization of early-onset colorectal cancer.
        Cancer. 2019; 125: 2002
        • Weinberg B.A.
        • Marshall J.L.
        Colon Cancer in Young Adults: Trends and Their Implications.
        Curr Oncol Rep. 2019; 21: 1-7
        • O’Connell J.B.
        • Maggard M.A.
        • Liu J.H.
        • et al.
        Do Young Colon Cancer Patients Have Worse Outcomes?.
        World J Surg. 2004; 28: 558-562
        • Saraste D.
        • Järås J.
        • Martling A.
        Population-based analysis of outcomes with early-age colorectal cancer.
        Br J Surg. 2020; 107: 301-309
        • Liang J.T.
        • Huang K.C.
        • Cheng A.L.
        • et al.
        Clinicopathological and molecular biological features of colorectal cancer in patients less than 40 years of age.
        Br J Surg. 2003; 90: 205-214
        • Yang J.
        • Yu J.
        The association of diet, gut microbiota and colorectal cancer: what we eat may imply what we get.
        Protein & Cell. 2018; 9: 474
        • Rosato V.
        • Bosetti C.
        • Levi F.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for young-onset colorectal cancer.
        Cancer Causes & Control. 2012; 24: 335-341
        • Archambault A.N.
        • Lin Y.
        • Jeon J.
        • et al.
        Nongenetic Determinants of Risk for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.
        JNCI Cancer Spectr. 2021; 5https://doi.org/10.1093/JNCICS/PKAB029
        • Hofseth L.J.
        • Hebert J.R.
        • Chanda A.
        • et al.
        Early-onset colorectal cancer: initial clues and current views.
        Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020; 17: 352-364
        • Cho E.
        • Smith-Warner S.A.
        • Spiegelman D.
        • et al.
        Dairy Foods, Calcium, and Colorectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 10 Cohort Studies.
        JNCI: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96: 1015-1022
        • Chang V.C.
        • Cotterchio M.
        • De P.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for early-onset colorectal cancer: a population-based case–control study in Ontario, Canada.
        Cancer Causes & Control. 2021; 32: 1063-1083
        • Yoon L.S.
        • Michels K.B.
        Characterizing the Effects of Calcium and Prebiotic Fiber on Human Gut Microbiota Composition and Function Using a Randomized Crossover Design—A Feasibility Study.
        Nutrients. 2021; 13: 1937
        • Li Y.
        • Guo L.
        • He K.
        • et al.
        Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice and human cancer: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.
        J Cancer. 2021; 12: 3077-3088
        • Hur J.
        • Otegbeye E.
        • Joh H.-K.
        • et al.
        Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in adulthood and adolescence and risk of early-onset colorectal cancer among women.
        Gut. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1136/GUTJNL-2020-323450
        • Joh H.-K.
        • Lee D.H.
        • Hur J.
        • et al.
        Simple Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake During Adolescence and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Precursors.
        Gastroenterology. 2021; 161: 128-142.e20
        • Ferrari P.
        • Jenab M.
        • Norat T.
        • et al.
        Lifetime and baseline alcohol intake and risk of colon and rectal cancers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).
        Int J Cancer. 2007; 121: 2065-2072
        • Scherübl H.
        Alcohol Use and Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk.
        Visc Med. 2020; 36: 175-181
        • Rueda M.
        • Robertson Y.
        • Acott A.
        • et al.
        Association of tobacco and alcohol use with earlier development of colorectal pathology: should screening guidelines be modified to include these risk factors?.
        Am J Surg. 2012; 204: 963-968
        • Gao R.
        • Zhu Y.
        • Kong C.
        • et al.
        Alterations, Interactions, and Diagnostic Potential of Gut Bacteria and Viruses in Colorectal Cancer.
        Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2021; 11: 657867
        • Mehta R.S.
        • Nishihara R.
        • Cao Y.
        • et al.
        Association of Dietary Patterns With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Subtypes Classified by Fusobacterium nucleatum in Tumor Tissue.
        JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3: 921-927
        • Mukherji R.
        • Weinberg B.A.
        The gut microbiome and potential implications for early-onset colorectal cancer.
        . 2020; 9: CRC25
        • Tahara T.
        • Yamamoto E.
        • Suzuki H.
        • et al.
        Fusobacterium in Colonic Flora and Molecular Features of Colorectal Carcinoma.
        Cancer Res. 2014; 74: 1311-1318
        • Mima K.
        • Sukawa Y.
        • Nishihara R.
        • et al.
        Fusobacterium nucleatum and T Cells in Colorectal Carcinoma.
        JAMA Oncol. 2015; 1: 653-661
        • Kosumi K.
        • Hamada T.
        • Koh H.
        • et al.
        The Amount of Bifidobacterium Genus in Colorectal Carcinoma Tissue in Relation to Tumor Characteristics and Clinical Outcome.
        Am J Pathol. 2018; 188: 2839
        • Mauri G.
        • Sartore-Bianchi A.
        • Russo A.
        • et al.
        Early-onset colorectal cancer in young individuals.
        Mol Oncol. 2019; 13: 109
        • Kneuertz P.J.
        • Chang G.J.
        • Hu C.-Y.
        • et al.
        Overtreatment of Young Adults With Colon Cancer: More Intense Treatments With Unmatched Survival Gains.
        JAMA Surg. 2015; 150: 402-409
        • Wang R.
        • Wang M.-J.
        • Ping J.
        Clinicopathological Features and Survival Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Young Versus Elderly: A Population-Based Cohort Study of SEER 9 Registries Data (1988–2011).
        Medicine. 2015; 94: e1402
        • Kolarich A.
        • George T.J.
        • Hughes S.J.
        • et al.
        Rectal cancer patients younger than 50 years lack a survival benefit from NCCN guideline–directed treatment for stage II and III disease.
        Cancer. 2018; 124: 3510-3519
        • Zaborowski A.M.
        • Murphy B.
        • Creavin B.
        • et al.
        Clinicopathological features and oncological outcomes of patients with young-onset rectal cancer.
        Br J Surg. 2020; 107: 606-612
        • Abdelsattar Z.M.
        • Wong S.L.
        • Regenbogen S.E.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancer outcomes and treatment patterns in patients too young for average-risk screening.
        Cancer. 2016; 122: 929-934
      3. Adjuvant therapy for resected colon cancer in older adult patients - UpToDate.
        (Available at:) (Accessed September 15, 2021)
        • Manjelievskaia J.
        • Brown D.
        • McGlynn K.A.
        • et al.
        Chemotherapy Use and Survival Among Young and Middle-Aged Patients With Colon Cancer.
        JAMA Surg. 2017; 152: 452-459
        • Burnett-Hartman A.N.
        • Powers J.D.
        • Chubak J.
        • et al.
        Treatment patterns and survival differ between early-onset and late-onset colorectal cancer patients: the patient outcomes to advance learning network.
        Cancer Causes & Control. 2019; 30: 747-755